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Man in Library


Welcome to the Writing Center at Northwind Theological Seminary
Northwind uses a modified version of the Turabian style of formatting for all required papers in all courses. 
Turabian is the student version of The Chicago Manual of Style (CMOS) designed for high school and college students writing papers in courses on the humanities, social, and natural sciences. (Sometimes the names "Turabian" and "Chicago" are used interchangeably.)
Turabian (and other formatting styles) provide a clear, consistent format for students to follow when writing papers, with specific guidelines on the use of everything from title pages, to page numbers, headings and subheadings, paragraphs, citations and bibliographies. 
Please note: There are two acceptable citation methods within the Turabian style. One uses footnotes and a bibliography; the other uses parenthetical references and a reference list. Ask your professor which Turabian method is required for their class. 


Correctly citing sources is important. It helps you:


  • Avoid plagiarism

  • Demonstrate academic honesty and courtesy for the work of others

  • Build credibility by citing experts to support your arguments

  • Allow readers to learn more about the topic by exploring your sources

  • Allow others to conduct further research based on your work.


Whether you choose to use a direct quotation, summary or paraphrase, you must cite any information or ideas that are not your own original work. This includes but is not limited to words, images, computer code, charts and diagrams.

Remember when in doubt, cite it!

Christin Ditchfield Lazo 2022 HZ .jpg

Dr. Christin Ditchfield Lazo

Writing Center Director

Click on the image to order the Ninth Edition of the Turabian Manual from Amazon (hardcover, paperback, or spiral-bound).
Click on the quote icon to access Citation Machine, a free online turabian citation generator.
(Be sure to select "Turabian" from the Style tabs across the top of the form.)
Download a quick guide to formatting footnotes from Northwind Faculty.
(link to pdf)
Download a set of sample footnotes.
(link to pdf)
Additional Resources
Purdue OWL 
(link to
A free online writing lab with extensive resources for academic writing.
Microsoft 365 or Word 2010 or newer 
(link to
Select the Reference tab to create citations and bibliography in Turabian.
(link to
This software allows you to organize your outline and note cards digitally and create citations for footnotes and bibliographies by scanning a book's ISBN with your smartphone. (Use the "Chicago" style setting.)

Quick Tips for Paper Submissions at Northwind


Unless otherwise instructed by your professor:


1. Use 12 point font, Times New Roman, Arial, Georgia, or Calibri.

2. Set all margins at 1".

3. Include a title page, with the title of your paper centered in the middle of the page. On the bottom third of the paper, center your name, followed by the name of the course, the name of your professor, and the date submitted.

4. Include page numbers for every page AFTER the title page, either on the top right, bottom right, or bottom center of the page.

5. Double-space the body of your paper.

6. Indent the first line of each new paragraph (don't use block paragraphs).

7. Include properly formatted footnotes throughout your paper AND a bibliography at the end.

8. Submit your in a *.doc or *.docx file format

Northwind Theological Seminary has adopted the Narrative Research in Ministry approach for all Courses. 


We are, in a real sense, our stories. Who we are, what we think, and how we act are shaped by the many large and small stories that make up the discourse embedded in our multi-sensory social experience.


This postmodern understanding of identity and reality has prompted the authors to fashion a new way of thinking about Notions and Approaches to Ministry.

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Click on the Narrative Research in Ministry Textbook Image to order this required textbook for Master's of Specialized MInistry and Doctor of Specialized Ministry Degree Programs.

Not required for the DTM Degree

Topic Papers

Reflection Paper Outline:   
5-10 Pages
  • Introduction
  • Reflection on the Textbook Topic
  • Reflection on a Textbook Quote
    • Intro Paragraph​
    • Inset Quote
    • Reflection paragraph

      Include as many quotes as needed to complete your reflection on the Textbook.
  • Summary of Textbook implication for ministry
  • Conclusion of Student's Reflection on the textbook topic

Book Report Paper Outline:
3-5 Pages

  • Introduction

  • Critical Engagement

    • What you agree with and why

    • What you disagree with and why

    • What you would contribute to the topic

  • ·         Personal Engagement

  • ·         Summary

  • ·         Conclusion

Application Paper Outline:
5-10 Page Paper

  • Introduction

  • How you view this source in your ministry context

  • How you would use this source in your ministry

  • How you would use this source is a project

  • What principles have you learned from this source

  • Conclusion

Comparison Paper Outline:
10-15 Page Paper

  • Introduction

  • Summarize Source One

  • Summarize Source Two

  • Compare similarities

  • Contrast differences

  • Integrate your understanding of both sources

  • Conclusion

Precis Paper

A rhetorical précis is a type of academic writing where you summarize another piece of text, its main ideas and arguments, in particular, to provide insight into its author’s thesis.

When assigned to write a précis, make sure you understand its characteristics:

  1. A précis is a critical summary of writing abstracts.

  2. A précis is NOT re-writing or interpretation of the original.

  3. It is NOT written with words from the original, though you are welcome to use some quotes if appropriate.

  4. It summarizes the content of the original.

  5. A précis reveals the meaning of the original and explains its value.

  6. As a rule, a précis is 1/4 of the original in length, except as noted.

  7. It follows the standard format: an author’s thesis and methods he uses to represent it, results, and conclusion.

So, the process of précis writing begins with critical reading and research:

  1. Read the original piece.

  2. Specify its core points and arguments.

  3. Consider the evidence used by the author.

  4. Research what’s new for you in the original piece: definitions, statements, words, data, etc.).

  5. Identify the appeals the author used.

  6. Evaluate how the author conveyed meaning.

  7. Restate the thesis.

  8. Write a 1-2 sentence summary of each section in the original.

  9. Describe it by own words.

  10. Reread the original and compare it with your summary.

Now it’s time to start writing the final draft of your critical précis. Begin with paraphrasing the thesis and your 1-2 sentence statements, then review it to make sure you’ve explained the main point, identified the evidence, and used the logical structure.


Final Papers

Tutorial Course Final Paper:
10-20 Pages
  • Introduction 
  • Reflection on Topic One
  • Reflection on Topic Two
  • Reflection on Topic Three
  • Reflection on Topic Four
  • Summary of the four Topic Reflections
  • Conclusion presenting the Student's understanding of the Course Content
Oxford Course Final Paper:
15-30 Pages
  • Introduction of Course Topic
  • Abstract
  • Reflection on Source One
  • Reflection on Source Two
  • Reflection on Source Three
  • Reflection on Source Four

    Include as many additional sources as needed to complete your research on the assigned topic of the course.
  • Summary of Source Research
  • Summary of Course Topic implication for ministry
  • Presentation of the Student's new understanding of the Course Topic
Research Course Final Paper:
10-20 Pages
  • Introduction of the Research Topic
  • Research Summary on Source One
  • Research Summary on Source Two
  • Research Summary on Source Three
  • Research Summary on Source Four

    Include as many additional sources as needed to complete your research on the assigned topic of the course.

  • Summary of all Source Research
  • Conclusions of Research

Project Course Final Paper: 

10-20 page 


•       Project Description

•       Project Goals

•       Project Elements

•       Project Timeline

•       Project Evaluation

•       Project Summary 

Case Study Outline:
Organization or MInistry
5-10 Page Paper

  • History of the Ministry or Organization

  • Describe the Theological Priorities of the Ministry or Organization.

  • Describe the major issue facing the Ministry or Organization.

  • Describe how the Ministry or Organization organizes and reaches out to other organizations or ministries.

  • Evaluate the successes and/or failures of the Ministry or Organization.

  • Present your suggestions or wisdom you would offer the Ministry or Organization.

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