Man in Library


Christin Ditchfield Lazo 2022 HZ .jpg

Dr. Christin Ditchfield Lazo

Writing Center Director

Northwind Theological Seminary has adopted the Turabian Style for all required papers in all courses.

What is Turabian?

Turabian is the student version of The Chicago Manual of Style (CMOS) designed for high school and college students that need to write papers that are not intended for publication. Both Turabian and CMOS are official Chicago styles.


Who uses Turabian?

Turabian is used by the humanities, social and natural sciences. There are two citation methods within Turabian style which includes the traditional method of footnotes with a bibliography and the method of parenthetical references with a reference list at the end of the paper. Ask your professor which Turabian method is required for their class. 


Why do I need to use Turabian?

There are several important reasons to document your outside sources:


  • Avoid plagiarism

  • Demonstrate academic honesty and courtesy for the work of others

  • Allow readers to learn more about the topic

  • Build credibility for your work as you are citing experts to support your arguments

  • Allow others to conduct further research based on your work

Whether you choose to use a direct quotation or merely paraphrase someone else's idea, you must cite any idea that did not come from you. This includes but is not limited to text, images, computer code and charts.

Remember when in doubt, cite it!

Click on the Textbook Image to order textbooks, Hardcover, Paperback,or Spiral-bound versions of the Turabian Handbook.
Click on the Citation Machine Image to use the online citation generator.
Be sure to select Turabian Style when using the Citation Machine website.
Click on the PDF Image to access footnote examples developed by Northwind Seminary Faculty to help you with you papers.
Microsoft 365 and Microsoft Word 2010 (or newer) can create Citations and a Bibliography in Turabian.
Select the Reference tab to access these features

How to present the quotes you are using in your paper.


For each quote use the following 3 paragraph format:

Paragraph 1: Introduce the quote with 2-4 sentences describing why you included the quote.

Paragraph 2: Indent the Quote and provide a footnote

Paragraph 3: Provide your reflection of your understanding of how the quote impacts the focus of your research.

Click on the PDF Image to access a Quote example

 to help you with your papers.

Click on the Narrative Research in Ministry Textbook Image to order this required textbook for Doctoral Programs.

Northwind Theological Seminary has adopted the Narrative Research in Ministry approach for all Research Courses and Projects. 


We are in a real sense, our stories. Who we are, what we think, and how we act are all shaped by the many large and small stories that make up the discourse embedded in our multi-sensory social experience. It is this postmodern understanding of identity and reality that has prompted the authors to fashion a new way of thinking about doing research in faith communities today, particularly through a Doctor of Ministry program. It is our belief that, in order for faith communities to define themselves and to know what to do in ministry, they must first understand the multiple stories which intersect with a given ministry situation in their specific context.

NTS.Narrative Research.webp

Topic Papers

Reflection Paper Outline:   
5-10 Pages
  • Introduction
  • Reflection on the Textbook Topic
  • Reflection on a Textbook Quote
    • Intro Paragraph​
    • Inset Quote
    • Reflection paragraph

      Include as many quotes as needed to complete your reflection on the Textbook.
  • Summary of Textbook implication for ministry
  • Conclusion of Student's Reflection on the textbook topic

Book Report Paper Outline:
3-5 Pages

  • Introduction

  • Critical Engagement

    • What you agree with and why

    • What you disagree with and why

    • What you would contribute to the topic

  • ·         Personal Engagement

  • ·         Summary

  • ·         Conclusion

Application Paper Outline:
5-10 Page Paper

  • Introduction

  • How you view this source in your ministry context

  • How you would use this source in your ministry

  • How you would use this source is a project

  • What principles have you learned from this source

  • Conclusion

Comparison Paper Outline:
10-15 Page Paper

  • Introduction

  • Summarize Source One

  • Summarize Source Two

  • Compare similarities

  • Contrast differences

  • Integrate your understanding of both sources

  • Conclusion

Precis Paper

A rhetorical précis is a type of academic writing where you summarize another piece of text, its main ideas and arguments, in particular, to provide insight into its author’s thesis.

When assigned to write a précis, make sure you understand its characteristics:

  1. A précis is a critical summary of writing abstracts.

  2. A précis is NOT re-writing or interpretation of the original.

  3. It is NOT written with words from the original, though you are welcome to use some quotes if appropriate.

  4. It summarizes the content of the original.

  5. A précis reveals the meaning of the original and explains its value.

  6. As a rule, a précis is 1/4 of the original in length, except as noted.

  7. It follows the standard format: an author’s thesis and methods he uses to represent it, results, and conclusion.

So, the process of précis writing begins with critical reading and research:

  1. Read the original piece.

  2. Specify its core points and arguments.

  3. Consider the evidence used by the author.

  4. Research what’s new for you in the original piece: definitions, statements, words, data, etc.).

  5. Identify the appeals the author used.

  6. Evaluate how the author conveyed meaning.

  7. Restate the thesis.

  8. Write a 1-2 sentence summary of each section in the original.

  9. Describe it by own words.

  10. Reread the original and compare it with your summary.

Now it’s time to start writing the final draft of your critical précis. Begin with paraphrasing the thesis and your 1-2 sentence statements, then review it to make sure you’ve explained the main point, identified the evidence, and used the logical structure.


Final Papers

Tutorial Course Final Paper:
10-20 Pages
  • Introduction 
  • Reflection on Topic One
  • Reflection on Topic Two
  • Reflection on Topic Three
  • Reflection on Topic Four
  • Summary of the four Topic Reflections
  • Conclusion presenting the Student's understanding of the Course Content
Oxford Course Final Paper:
15-30 Pages
  • Introduction of Course Topic
  • Abstract
  • Reflection on Source One
  • Reflection on Source Two
  • Reflection on Source Three
  • Reflection on Source Four

    Include as many additional sources as needed to complete your research on the assigned topic of the course.
  • Summary of Source Research
  • Summary of Course Topic implication for ministry
  • Presentation of the Student's new understanding of the Course Topic
Research Course Final Paper:
10-20 Pages
  • Introduction of the Research Topic
  • Research Summary on Source One
  • Research Summary on Source Two
  • Research Summary on Source Three
  • Research Summary on Source Four

    Include as many additional sources as needed to complete your research on the assigned topic of the course.

  • Summary of all Source Research
  • Conclusions of Research

Project Course Final Paper: 

10-20 page 


•       Project Description

•       Project Goals

•       Project Elements

•       Project Timeline

•       Project Evaluation

•       Project Summary 

Case Study Outline:
Organization or MInistry
5-10 Page Paper

  • History of the Ministry or Organization

  • Describe the Theological Priorities of the Ministry or Organization.

  • Describe the major issue facing the Ministry or Organization.

  • Describe how the Ministry or Organization organizes and reaches out to other organizations or ministries.

  • Evaluate the successes and/or failures of the Ministry or Organization.

  • Present your suggestions or wisdom you would offer the Ministry or Organization.